Sunday, May 24, 2020

Christianity, The World s Largest Religion - 1653 Words

Christianity consists of a lot more then what most people perceive of it. Not only is Christianity the world’s largest religion, but also includes more than 25,000 different denominational groups. The three branches of Christianity are Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Protestant. Each of these branches have numerous denominations within them. For instance, Protestantism includes Lutherans, Baptist, Methodists, Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Pentecostals, and Evangelicals. Ongoing conflicts about beliefs and practices caused the creation of these denominations. In 1504, the first division of Christianity into branches occurred with the creation of Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy. They separated due to the difference in†¦show more content†¦All Christians believe that all humans are sinful and in need of grace, and that only Jesus Christ makes it possible for us to have a relationship with God through his death and resurrection. They also believe that th e Bible tells us who God is, how we can have a relationship with him, and how we can extend God’s love to other people. The branches of Christianity differ in heads of the church, how church is conducted, the importance of saints, and many other minor differences. Roman Catholics believe in a hierarchy with the Pope (Bishop of Rome) at the top. The Pope is the â€Å"Vicar of Christ† (Christ on Earth) and acts in his place to lead the Church in determining what is right and proper for all Catholics. He exercises authority over the 3,250 Bishops in the Roman Catholic Church and speaks on issues pertaining to faith and morals. Roman Catholic tradition of the Pope is based on the apostle Peter being ordained the first â€Å"pope† when Jesus declared, â€Å"And I say also unto thee, that thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it† (King James Bible Matthew 16:18). Cardinals, who have the right to

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Care and Belonging Free Essays

Jessica Downie Professor Troy McGinnis Reading Journal Entry #1 October 4, 2012 â€Å"Care and Belonging in the Market† by Allison J. Pugh Allison J. Pugh took the words right out of my mouth when writing her article on parents spending too much money on material items for their children. We will write a custom essay sample on Care and Belonging or any similar topic only for you Order Now Commodity consumption for children has exploded to $670 billion spent annually on or by children in the United states in 2004 and there is a good chance its only getting higher. She branches off in the article going into several different topics on how the adults and children are effected by their desire to want to belong in society and how it affects the relationship between the parents and the children. It also focuses on the corporate marketers and how they tend to sell a fantasy to the children, reeling them into having a desire to have the product. This being done by the marketers, it also allows the parents to have the desire for their children, resulting in buying the product. As I was reading this article, it made me think of my childhood growing up and how I related so close to this topic. For me, I didn’t have a lot growing up so I found myself struggling with wanting all the same things my friends had that my parents couldn’t always afford. My parents both worked full time jobs to provide for me and my two older brothers. Allison J. Pugh states in the article that low-income parents often planned ahead and save up to be able to buy their children what they ask for and I saw my parents do this for me and my brothers for Christmas and our birthdays. My parents taught me at a young age to stay humble and that material things don’t define me as a person. I carry this lesson with my everyday life now. I see my father now buying my two younger half sisters any and everything they could ever want. I see him trying to make up for the things he couldn’t give me while growing up. It also points out that your parents don’t buy you things for the joy of themselves; they simply do it because they have a fear f not wanting their kid to feel left out or feel as if they don’t belong. My five and nine year old sister has been through 2 iPads, iPod touches, cell phones and numerous amounts of toys, each. I find them being spoiled at such a young age is going to lead them to grow up not understanding the meaning of what a privilege it is to have nice things. Naturally everyone has a desire to fit in and be accepted by society, that wont ever change. As you get older, you are more aware of your status in society. You come to understand how society works, the interaction between people and the meanings of symbols in your day-to-day life. I do believe if more kids are exposed to valuable lessons growing up and not just get things handed to them, the chances of them taking these things for granted is less and maybe they wont feel the need to have the newest pair of Air Jordan’s or the latest iPhone just because everyone else does. I asked myself a few questions as I read through the article. One being, how was I effected by what my parents bought me growing up? Why does society look down on others if they don’t have the best of the best? Will this ever change? I started to pay attention to children and their parents when I was at the store, work and when I was at the mall the other day. I feel as if parents these days almost buy their kids love by giving into what they want even if its something ridiculous. Parents give in way too easily and the kids catch on to what they can and cant get away with. This also being a problem when trying to persuade your parents that you absolutely need the new Nintendo DS or else your life is over. She spent time with families who were low-income families and richer families. She noticed that â€Å"affluent parents practiced a form a form of â€Å"symbolic deprivation† pointing to particularly meaningful goods or experiences that their child didn’t not have as evidence of their own moral restraint and worthiness as parents. † I had to break that down to really understand what she meant by that. I think she means the affluent parents buy their children material things because they can and they want to stay higher up on the ladder in society. As for most low-income parents, they implemented a form of â€Å"symbolic indulgence†. Making sure that those particular goods or experiences have the most significant symbolic value for the children’s social world. They did the best they could with the resources they had and sometimes putting those items more important than anything else at that time. Id be lying if I was to say that I think this explosion of parents spending ridiculous amounts of money to shape their child’s social status is going to change anytime soon. I don’t think it will ever change. Its practically an unwritten rule in society. Parents will continue to do anything they can to make the kids be accepted by society and make them feel as comfortable as they grow older and make their way into the real world. How to cite Care and Belonging, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Academic Writing Memoir

Question: Discuss about theAcademic Writingfor Memoir. Answer: The Truth in Memoir Writing Memoir is considered a subgenre under the category of Creative nonfiction. According to Henderson, the author incorporates into the memoir a part of his lifes event. The objective of memoir is to reveal the authors experiences. Dollins discussed that the main difference between autobiography or biography and memoir is that the former covers the complete life of the author. Memoirs should include real facts, true stories of the authors life. In the given passages, the Patricia Hampl and Salman Rushdie have outlined the definition of Memoir. In the passage one, Patricia Hampl has discussed that memoir and fiction are not the same and any accusation of from the critics part is unjustified. Singer, and Nicole discussed, Memoir, as a genre is accused with intermixing memory with imagination. Her point of argument in this essay centers on the role of memory in writing nonfiction and its difference from imagination. Hampl argued that memoir is the best tool to channelize ones emotion while revealing real facts (Hampl, 1996). It is a fact that every person attaches some amount of emotion and imagination to his experiences. An autobiography or journalistic writing might reveal the facts; however, these are unable to project the real emotional outcome of the author. Memoir accomplishes this task effectively. Hampl argued that each person has a real past that is tangible and made with real stuffs that he has undergone. (Hampl, 1996) However, not everything is preserved in the mind. People tend to remember some facts accurately and forget some completely. Memory plays the vital role whenever one decides to share those events. She has discussed that whatever is stored accurately as a memory can be expressed in details. It does not mean that those facts are not real or imaginary. In cases where reality cannot be depicted in its complete shape, the imagination of the author reconstructs a portion of it without violating the main essence of the narrative. (Hampl, 1996) In any of those instances, the writer never moves out of reality and enters into the domain of fiction writing. Memoir is definitely not a fiction. Fiction does not include any real facts uttered by the narrator. According to Frye, Hampl has brought the question of why a writer should select memoir as a style of writing over biography while sharing his life stories. It is a point of argument why a writer should write memoir and not an autobiography if he has decided to express his own experiences. Patricia Hampl discusses the answer in this book. She said that memoir enables the writer to incorporate his subjective self or subjective point of view into the narrative (Hampl, 1996). Every situation or every experience never adds value to our lives if it is devoid of any personal emotion. Karr also opined that the emotional outcome that is a result of the subjective point of view acts a link between the author and the narrative. Unlike the fiction, memoir is a documentation of real events with real emotions. Therefore, the readers feel mote involvement with the story. Karr said, Hampl explains that it is the gift of the narrators to transform the experience through creative imagination and adds value to that experience. Memoir does this job effectively. The second passage, extracted from Salman Rusdies memoir Imaginary Homelands, defines memoir as an effective subgenre of Creative nonfiction. The confusion of a writer while describing the real emotions is clearly brought out by Rushdie. He uttered that when he looked through his window and found a beautiful scene of the city, he felt that it is not something that he has imaganied (Rushdie 2012). His imagination was completely different from what he has experienced. However, as a writer of nonfiction narrative, he is bound to project the real events and real emotions. He is not allowed to exercise his imagination while describing how the city of North London looks from the windowpane (Rushdie 2012). The discussion of memory, imagination and creativity in the nonfiction writing is very different here from the previous extracted piece of writing by Patricia Hampl. According to Juhl, here the focus of the narrator is to upheld the truth about utilizing memory and bring the past back wit hout any distortion. The subjectivity of the narrator plays a major role in this instance. He wanted o present his own version of history through his experiences. As Rushdie discussed, this version should be different from all the other possible versions experienced and shared by other people. A mere nonfiction prose, however, states the fact. This fact might be same for everybody. Rushdie opined that memoir makes the difference in this case. Hidalgo discussed, Memoir explores the real fact replete with the subjective experience of the narrator. It describes the way the reality has affected or influenced the narrator, which varies from one person to another. However, Rushdie does not ignore the questions of accuracy and authenticity. He explained that he has tried to remain imaginatively true. Although, the truth of the imagination is a matter of suspicion for many people, yet that is the best possible way to explore a new and different version of the real fact. He argued that any o ther person might not experience his version of the reality; however, it does not make his version false. This version might also not be included into the history, yet it is not false. The way Rushdie has experienced India and especially Bombay, might never be the same again, and it might not be found in the future too. Still, it is his experience and should not be included into the genre of fiction. It is not his imagination that he has shared; rather it is the subjective point of view that he has incorporated into the narrative. To make his point clear to the readers, Rushdie has introduced a narrator named Saleem who narrates the story. Through Saleem, Rushdie has shared his real experiences. As already discussed, Rushdie has made an argument that our memory does not remember everything and therefore, it is impossible to describe everything. To project this concept, Rushdie has made Saleem having a fallible memory. It is a matter of argument whether a novel is considered a memoir or not. An autobiography can be considered a memoir. A biography can never be a memoir because the subjective self of the narrator is not present in the novel that a memoir strongly demands. Some novels that claim to have based on any real life incidents are also not included in the genre of memoir if it is based on the experience of any other person. The narrator must share his own experience creatively through the narrative. It is clearly pointed out by Hampl as she mentioned the intersection of narration and reflection in the memoir. It is the subjectivity of the narrative that makes all the differences. A creative nonfiction writer will show the topic or the subject, place and personality through actions. Memoir is one such genre of creative nonfiction, where the writer focuses on presenting the I of the writer. The inclusion of subjectivity attaches an amount of suspicion into the narrative. Both Hampl and Rushdie have introduced this point of argument in their works. On one hand, human memory is not bound to store everything that it is gone by. The question is to maintain factual accuracy by not filling the blank with the imagination of the author. Hampl has written that a memoirist always have her story already finished and completely achieved in reality. In such a situation, the memoir is nothing but a transcription of the history. Her words justify the authenticity of her narrative. She has discussed how memory plays an important role in recollection of the real facts. As she said that she did not remember anything about her first arithmetic lessons, yet the memory of the first piano lesson is accurately preserved in her mind. Her discussion negates the allegation of falsification. The memoir that she has written is replete with minute details of experiences because she has actually remembered those things. On the other hand, Rushdie has argued that it is impossible to recall every detail. Therefore, he made his narrator having a fallible memory. It does not make the narrative a fiction; rather it is an important component of memoir as a genre. Defining Non Fiction Creative non-fiction is also named literary nonfiction and narrative nonfiction. The style is marked by producing narratives that are factually accurate. As a genre, it is contrasted with other types of nonfiction including academic or technical writing and even journalistic style of writing because all these technique focus on presenting fact based narratives. However, creative nonfiction is gaining acceptance with time. One thing that comes to mind is that in what ways other nonfiction is different to creative nonfiction. In addition, how can nonfiction be creative? It can be understood by analyzing creative nonfiction as a separate genre. The main objective of the nonfiction writer is to provide accurate information about any real incident. However, his presentation should be in a way that appears as a fiction. Various narrative forms belonging to this genre include biography, memoir, autobiography, literary journalism, food related writing, diary, travelogue, chronicles, and personal essays. There are other hybridized essays that are part of this genre. According to Williams, the genre of creative writing can be divided into two sub-categories namely Personal essay and journalistic essay. Apart from this opinion, another critic Kerr has outlined four distinctive characteristics of this genre. He emphasized on the inclusion of documentable subject matter taken from the real world and not something invented in the mind of the writer. It tries to establish the fact that creative nonfiction should include real facts of the real world. The second characteristic of this genre is exhaustive research. It allows the writer to channelize novel perspective through the narratives. Exhaustive Research also permits the writers to include verifiable references in the text that enhance the credibility of their narratives. The third characteristic of Creative nonfiction is the scene. It means that the writers should describe and portray a scene in a contrast to the journalistic style of writing. The forth characteristic of it is named as fine writing: a literary prose style. It refers to the polished and organized writing style of the narrator that makes the narrative attractive to the readers. Apart from all the characteristics discussed in the above, the creative nonfiction can also have a style of traditional style of fiction writing (Girard, 2015). As Starkey has discussed, in many of the well-known creative nonfiction essays, the author is found using the style of fiction writing while providing real facts about a real event. Fenton Johnsons Story of love and loss, and Geography of the heart, and Patty Hearst by Virginia Holman are found to follow this trend. It is a fact that the genre has undergone many experiments and is still going through it. The main question is in what ways and to what extent the creative nonfiction can be creative. The level and limitation of creativity have been discussed by the authors. In his book Silvertown, Melanie McGrath has mentioned that the real facts in the stories act as the canvas on which he has embroidered and those facts that are absent are replaced by the reimagined scenes or events to match the real essence of the scene (McGra th, 2012). He believed that such reconstruction does not alter the truth but enhanced it. Not all critics have agreed on inclusion of reconstructed events. One important aspect has been discussed by Himmelheber et al, they discussed that memory, which is the storehouse of all the real facts, reconstruct real facts unconsciously. It is not always possible to write exactly the same actions that took place. Human memory keeps the main essence intact based on which it provide facts. Therefore, human memory is termed as the ultimate mythmaker. According to Beaumont, even if one writes a journalistic price of writing based on a interview, the writer is unable to provide exact words of the interviewee. The main points included in the published writing should retain the real facts; however, it is impossible to avoid imagination at all. Use of creative imagination is profound in such instances. Often the journalists are accused with presenting falsifying stories. It can be said that they hav e failed to channelize their creative thinking. Creative imagination of the author should not exaggerate or overshadow the real facts. It should support the Factual evidences with proper style and presentation. Any falsification of facts in case of journalistic essays is considered unethical. This issue of ethics is applied in other types of Creative nonfiction too. The purpose is to project the truth. According to Einstein, creative nonfiction deals with both truth and accuracy, that is expected from nonfiction writing. Pickett has observed that since the genre of creative nonfiction started gaining acceptance from the readers and the authors, some critics have talked about the limitation of the art form. Writing in scenes, which is an important element of creative nonfiction, indicates the difference between telling and showing. It is observed that a nonfiction writer mainly introduces a subject or a topic, a place or any personality. However, a creative nonfiction writer will show the topic or the subject, place and personality through actions. It has resulted into the development of subgenres under the category of personal essay. Memoir is one such genre of creative nonfiction, where the writer focuses on presenting the I of the writer. Memory and Imagination by Patricia Hampl is a creative nonfiction narrative. It falls into the subgenre of memoir. Here the narrator has shared her childhood experiences in a creative manner. Hampl describes the role of music in her family life, as her father was a violin player. Hampl learnt music from her father and used to perform duets with him. The story is presented in detail. According to Gutkind, from the very beginning of the story, the facts appeared to be believable. However, it is found that not every single details presented in the narrative is not true. Some of them are the projection of Hampls own imagination. Through the narrative, she has tried to demonstrate the need of the people while writing or reading a memoir. Hampl has tried to establish the importance of imagination in memoir writing. However, the first draft of the narrative introduced only the basic concept of what to write; then the writer shifted to the detailed discussion. Through her memoir, Hampl has e xpressed the hidden emotions and images. This is what many critics have talked about as the violation of the authenticity of nonfiction writing. While presenting her life story, Hampl has incorporated her emotions and experiences into the narrative. The existence of the self or the I within the structure of the nonfiction writing is what makes it a piece of creative nonfiction (Hampl, 1996). On the other hand, Freeman discussed, the existence of the self in the narrative is an evidence of truth and reality. Whatever she has experienced in her childhood, she has expressed it to the readers. The memories of that she shares, the memories of her parents compelling her to become the person they wanted, the kinds of punishments and consequences that she survives, everything is described with effective choice of words. The debate was whether these words are exaggeration or real emotions. Words such as tortured flair, artistry, gleamed are mainly found in fiction prose. According to Concha, Hampl has used these words to show the situation she has faced. All creative nonfiction writers should have the idea about the limitations of providing emotional overtones. Through the scenes, she has presented her story. The readers are able to see what she has wanted to show them. It goes perfectly with the concept of creative nonfiction. Apart from the scenes, Hampl has maintained all the four elements of Creative nonfiction. She has retained all the other elements of creative nonfiction in this memoir. She has documented the real life events, exercises her perspective through experiences, presented the scenes, and written in beautiful literary prose style. To discuss whether Hampl is successful in presenting real events without any exaggeration, a close look at the prose will be given. While reading the story, the readers will find the detailed description of the characters mentioned by the author. She described Sister Olive Marie as small, plump woman. She has mentioned the name of the real people. It is found in the name of Thompson (Hampl, 1996). However, Hampl has justified why she has chosen the genre of memoir while intending to share her childhood experiences. She has written that a memoirist always have her story already finished and completely achieved in reality. In such a situation, the memoir is nothing but a transcription of the history. Her words justify the authenticity of her narrative. She has discussed how memory plays an important role in recollection of the real facts. As she said that she did not remember anything about her first arithmetic lessons, yet the memory of the first piano lesson is accurately preserved in her mind. Her discussion negates the allegation of falsification. According to Himmelheber et al, the memoir that she has written is replete with minute details of experiences because she has actually remembered those things. Therefore, when she utters that, the sun makes me sneeze, the reader is supposed to accept it as a real experience of that particular moment because Hampl has actually remembered them. Caulley opined, on the other hand, when she mentioned that she has added her creativity to differentiate the narrative from mere transcription, the reader is bound to accept the areas where creativity occurred. Hampl has pointed out that memoir is considered nonfiction because each person has a real and tangible past. In this book, she has only brought that past in front of the readers. As it is her life events and she is the person who is writing, it is supposed to include her subjective point of view. Therefore, it is very much a piece of creative nonfiction. References Beaumont, Karen. "Delving into the fourth genre."English in Aotearoa88 (2016): 26. Caulley, Darrel N. "Making qualitative research reports less boring: The techniques of writing creative nonfiction."Qualitative Inquiry(2008). Concha, Jaime. "memoirs and his transpoetic dimension."anales de literatura chilena. Vol. 14. No. 19. Centro estudios literatura chilena, av vicuna mackenna 4860, santiago, 00000, chile: pontificia univ catolica chile, fac letras,, 2013. Dollins, Cynthia A. "Crafting Creative Nonfiction: From Close Reading to Close Writing."The Reading Teacher(2016). Einstein, Sarah E.Person, Place, and Thing. Diss. Ohio University, 2016. Freeman, Robin, and Karen Le Rossignol. "Writer-as-narrator: engaging the debate around the (un) reliable narrator in memoir and the personal essay."Text: journal of writing and writing programs19.1 (2015): 1-1. Frye, Northrop.Anatomy of criticism. Princeton University Press, 2015. Girard, Rosemary. "The Professional Writer's Many Personae: Creative Nonfiction, Popular Writing, Speechwriting, and Personal Narrative." (2015). Gutkind, Lee.You can't make this stuff up: The complete guide to writing creative nonfiction--from memoir to literary journalism and everything in between. Da Capo Press, 2012 Hampl, Patricia. "Memory and imagination."The anatomy of memory: An anthology(1996): 201-11. Henderson, Charles.Within the writing genre of creative nonfiction: drafting a memoir as an effective way to present an epic cultural question to a wide audience. Diss. University of Wales Lampeter, 2014. Hidalgo, Cristina Pantoja. "Reading and Writing Creative Nonfiction."Journal of English Studies and Comparative Literature(2015). Himmelheber, Rachel Haley, et al. "10 Terms Trends: Creative Writing and the Academy."What We Talk about When We Talk about Creative Writing14 (2016). Juhl, Peter D.Interpretation: An essay in the philosophy of literary criticism. Princeton University Press, 2014. Karr, Mary.The art of memoir. HarperCollins, 2015. Kerr, Jaren. "The Author as a Protagonist and Artist: Applying the Auteur Theory to Creative." (2015). McGrath, Melanie.Silvertown: an East End family memoir. HarperCollins UK, 2012 Nagy, Jamie K.Composing a Literary Adoption Memoir and Self Through Creative Nonfiction Memoir Writing. Diss. English Department, South Dakota State University, 2015. Pickett, Michael. "An Analysis of Narrative and Voice in Creative Nonfiction."Journal of Arts and Humanities2.7 (2013): 1. Rushdie, Salman.Imaginary homelands: Essays and criticism 1981-1991. Random House, 2012. Singer, Margot, and Nicole Walker, eds.Bending genre: Essays on creative nonfiction. Bloomsbury Publishing USA, 2013. Starkey, David.Creative writing: Four genres in brief. Macmillan Higher Education, 2012. Williams, Bronwyn T. "Writing Creative Nonfiction."A Companion to Creative Writing(2013): 24-39.

Wednesday, April 1, 2020

Present Concept of Atom free essay sample

Subatomic particles Main article: Subatomic particle Though the word atom originally denoted a particle that cannot be cut into smaller particles, in modern scientific usage the atom is composed of various subatomic particles. The constituent particles of an atom are the electron, the proton and the neutron. However, the hydrogen-1 atom has no neutrons and a positive hydrogen ion has no electrons. The electron is by far the least massive of these particles at 9. 11? 10? 1 kg, with a negative electrical charge and a size that is too small to be measured using available techniques. [46] Protons have a positive charge and a mass 1,836 times that of the electron, at 1. 6726? 10? 27 kg, although this can be reduced by changes to the energy binding the proton into an atom. Neutrons have no electrical charge and have a free mass of 1,839 times the mass of electrons,[47] or 1. 6929? 10? 27 kg. Neutrons and protons have comparable dimensions—on the order of 2. We will write a custom essay sample on Present Concept of Atom or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page ? 10? 15 m—although the surface of these particles is not sharply defined. [48] In the Standard Model of physics, both protons and neutrons are composed of elementary particles called quarks. The quark belongs to the fermion group of particles, and is one of the two basic constituents of matter—the other being the lepton, of which the electron is an example. There are six types of quarks, each having a fractional electric charge of either +2? or ? 1? 3. Protons are composed of two up quarks and one down quark, while a neutron consists of one up quark and two down quarks. This distinction accounts for the difference in mass and charge between the two particles. The quarks are held together by the strong nuclear force, which is mediated by gluons. The gluon is a member of the family of gauge bosons, which are elementary particles that mediate physical forces. [49][50]

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Recording Industry essays

Recording Industry essays The recording industry is one of the great global industries of today. It brings pleasure and fulfillment to people of all ages, cultures and creeds; it is one of the leading creative industries that increasingly drive the development of modern economies; and it is pioneering in the era of digital technologies and electronic commerce. In todays age when it comes to getting something for cheap, or something for nothing people will try their best to get it. One of the most unstable industries today is the recording industry. The reason for this is in todays society everyone tends to download music instead of buying it form a store. So the hundreds of hours and money put into recording an album has to be made back some how. It happens like this, one person would spend the $14.99 to buy an album then they would put it on their computer and log onto the Internet. Then millions of people are able to go on the Internet and download that same album for free. Then you have the people who dow nload the music and sell it on street corners for less than half the original price. Their making 100% Tax free profit off of someone elses hard work. All of this can be done form anyones personal computer. What their doing is stealing. Its called music- piracy. For someone to download and sell music that they didnt make is a felony. One of the many non-profit organizations that try to stop this is the IFPI. Protecting copyright, fighting piracy and promoting the value to modern economies of a thriving legitimate music industry, are core activities of IFPI. The IFPI is an organization representing the international recording industry. It comprises a membership of 1500 recording producers and distributors in 76 countries. They stop people from swapping music over the Internet. IFPIs priorities are fighting music piracy, and promoting fair market access, and having adequate copyright laws. ...

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Thermal Conductivity Report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Thermal Conductivity Report - Essay Example The negative sign indicates that heat is transferred in the direction of decreasing temperature. The heat flow will be in the perpendicular-to-the-cross-section direction, i.e. one-dimensional. To determine how much heat is provided, we will calculate how much heat is taken (absorb) by the cold water at steady state condition. (it is the condition at which heat supplied is equal to the heat removed). For this we use the relation Where Q is the rate of heat transfer, s is specific heat capacity of water , Tout is the temperature of water at outlet and Tin is the temperature of water at inlet. Putting the value of Q in (ii), we get The apparatus consist of accessories for providing heat at one end of sample composite bar and for taking heat at the other end of the bar through water. The water inlet temperature and outlet temperature was measured through thermometers. To determine the volume of water the measuring flask was provided. To determine the temperature at different points along the bar thermocouples were provided. The whole apparatus was well insulated to ensure one dimensional heat flow. The heater was switched on and as the circulation of water through the cavity. Readings at thermocouples 1,2,3 and 4 were taken when the steady state condition was achieved. The volume of water circulating was measured and time taken for this. The inlet and outlet temperature of water is also measured. Heat transfer has taken place because of the difference of temperature between two ends of sample bar (consisting of copper and stainless steel). From graph slopes of copper and stainless steel shows that drop in temperature per unit length in copper bar is less as compared to stainless steel, which indicates that copper has let more heat to be transferred through it. Similar result is given by the calculated thermal conductivities showing that copper thermal conductivity is greater as compare to stainless steel. A